Advancing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights
 
STATE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROFILE

Missouri

NATIONAL BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

Despite the demonstrable importance and ubiquity of contraception, the truth is that ensuring that every pregnancy is wanted and planned is difficult, at both the individual and the societal levels. For the typical American woman to have two children, she will spend about five years pregnant, postpartum or attempting to become pregnant, and three decades—more than three-quarters of her reproductive life—trying to avoid pregnancy. Not all women, however, are successful: About half of all pregnancies in the United States each year—more than three million of them—are unintended. By age 45, more than half of all American women will have experienced an unintended pregnancy, and at 2008 rates about three in ten will have had an abortion. Nonetheless, contraceptive use can and does dramatically reduce women's odds of having an unintended pregnancy.

 

DEMOGRAPHICS

  • In 2010, there were 1,254,060 women of reproductive age (aged 13-44) in Missouri, 684,240 of whom were in need of contraceptive services and supplies. Of these:
    • AGE: 108,250 were under the age of 20 and 575,960 were aged 20-44.
    • INCOME: Among women aged 20-44, 110,620 were below 100% of the federal poverty level.
    • RACE/ETHNICITY: 525,560 were non-Hispanic white; 94,450 were non-Hispanic black; and 27,680 were Hispanic.
  • In 2010, there were 387,790 women in Missouri in need of publicly supported contraceptive services and supplies. Of these, 108,250 were in need of publicly supported services because they were sexually active teenagers, and 279,430 because they had incomes below 250% of the federal poverty level.
  • In 2012-2013, 20% of women aged 15-44 in Missouri were uninsured, while 13% were enrolled in Medicaid.

For more information, see Contraceptive Needs and Services, 2010

PREGNANCIES, BIRTHS AND ABORTIONS

  • In 2011, there were 97,700 pregnancies to the 1,174,783 women of reproductive age (15-44) in Missouri; 78% of these pregnancies resulted in live births and 6% in induced abortions.
  • In 2008, 52% of pregnancies in Missouri were unintended. There were 60,000 unintended pregnancies to women in Missouri, producing a rate of 50 per 1,000 women of reproductive age.
  • Of all unintended pregnancies in Missouri in 2008, 61% resulted in live births and 24% resulted in induced abortions.
  • In 2008, 69% of births in Missouri resulting from unintended pregnancies were publicly funded, compared with 50% of all births and 35% of births resulting from intended pregnancies.
  • Of the 40,600 publicly funded births in Missouri in 2008, 25,400 resulted from unintended pregnancies.
  • Births resulting from unintended pregnancies in Missouri accounted for $293 million in public costs in 2008, including $183 million in federal costs and $110 million in state costs.
  • In 2011, 5,820 women obtained abortions in Missouri, producing a rate of 5 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Some of these women were from other states, and some Missouri residents had abortions in other states, so this rate may not reflect the abortion rate of state residents. The rate declined 21% since 2008, when it was 6.3 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Missouri represents 0.5% of all abortions in the United States.
  • In 2010, 15,160 Missouri residents obtained abortions, producing a rate of 12.8 per 1,000 women of reproductive age.
  • In 2010 , there were 11,160 pregnancies to Missouri teens aged 15-19; 81% of these pregnancies resulted in live births and 19% in induced abortions.
  • In 2008, 1,780 teens obtained abortions in Missouri, producing a rate of 9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-19.
  • In 2011, there were 5 abortion providers in Missouri; 5 of those were clinics. This represents a 17% decrease in overall providers and a 20% decrease in clinics from 2008, when there were 6 abortion providers overall, of which 5 were abortion clinics.
  • In 2011, 97% of Missouri counties had no abortion clinic; 74% of Missouri women lived in these counties.

For more information, see State Facts About Abortion

PUBLICLY FUNDED CONTRACEPTIVE SERVICES

  • In 2010 in Missouri, 193 safety net health centers provided contraceptive care to 95,870 women—including 21,400 teenagers.
  • Safety net health centers in Missouri served 25% of all women in need of publicly supported contraceptive services and supplies in 2010.
  • In Missouri, $118 in public funds was spent on contraceptive services and supplies per woman in need in 2010.
  • In Missouri, 98 safety net health centers that received some support through the federal Title-X family planning program provided contraceptive care to 60,980 women—including 12,790 teenagers in 2010.
  • Title-X-supported centers in Missouri served 16% of all women in need of publicly supported contraceptive services and supplies in 2010.

For more information, see Contraceptive Needs and Services, 2010

IMPACT OF PUBLICLY FUNDED CONTRACEPTIVE SERVICES

  • Publicly funded family planning services help women to avoid pregnancies they do not want and to plan pregnancies they do. In 2010, these services helped women in Missouri avoid 24,000 unintended pregnancies, which would likely have resulted in about 11,900 unintended births and 8,200 abortions.
  • Contraceptive services provided at Title X-supported centers in Missouri helped prevent 15,300 unintended pregnancies, which would likely have resulted in about 7,600 unintended births and 5,200 abortions.
  • The services provided at publicly funded family planning centers in Missouri saved the federal and state governments $113,000,000 in 2010.

For more information, see Contraceptive Needs and Services, 2010

STATE POLICIES

Policy Summary Table, as of July 1st, 2014

ABORTION
Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe v. Wade
State would restrict abortion to maximum extent permitted by Supreme Court
Abortion Counseling and Waiting Periods
Mandated counseling includes information designed to discourage abortion
State imposes waiting period between counseling and abortion 24 hours
Woman must make two trips: one for abortion counseling and another for the procedure
Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions
Parent must consent to an abortion One parent
Restrictions on Private Insurance Coverage of Abortion
Insurance may only cover in cases of life endangerment
Insurance for state employees restricted Coverage in limited circumstances
Public Funding of Abortion for Poor Women
Public funding is available in cases of life endangerment, rape or incest Only life, rape or incest.
Refusal Clauses for Abortion Services
Medical professionals may refuse
Medical institutions may refuse All institutions
ADOLESCENTS
Minors' Consent to Contraceptive Services
No policy in effect 
Minors' Consent to STI Services
All or some minors explicitly permitted to consent All minors
Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions
Parent must consent to an abortion One parent
Sex Education
Sex education must either stress or cover abstinence Stress
State mandates STI/HIV education
STI/HIV education must either stress or cover abstinence Stress
CONTRACEPTION SERVICES AND FINANCING
Emergency Contraception in Emergency Rooms
No policy in effect 
Private Insurance Coverage of Contraceptive Services
Insurance coverage mandated
Employers may refuse to provide coverage All employers
Insurers may refuse to provide coverage All insurers
Medicaid Family Planning Expansions
Eligibility for Medicaid family planning based on income 185% Federal Poverty Level
Contraceptive Access in Pharmacies
No policy in effect 
Refusal Clauses for Contraceptive Services
No policy in effect 
Minors' Consent to Contraceptive Services
No policy in effect 

For more information, see State Policies in Brief