Advancing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights
 
STATE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROFILE

Virginia

NATIONAL BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

Despite the demonstrable importance and ubiquity of contraception, the truth is that ensuring that every pregnancy is wanted and planned is difficult, at both the individual and the societal levels. For the typical American woman to have two children, she will spend close to three years pregnant, postpartum or attempting to become pregnant, and about three decades—more than three-quarters of her reproductive life—trying to avoid pregnancy. Not all women, however, are successful: About half of all pregnancies in the United States each year—more than three million of them—are unintended. By age 45, more than half of all American women will have experienced an unintended pregnancy, and at 2008 rates about three in ten will have had an abortion. Nonetheless, contraceptive use can and does dramatically reduce women's odds of having an unintended pregnancy.

 

DEMOGRAPHICS

  • In 2012, there were 1,770,930 women of reproductive age (aged 13—44) in Virginia, 985,060 of whom were in need of contraceptive services and supplies. Of these:
    • AGE: 117,240 were under the age of 20 and 867,820 were aged 20—44.
    • INCOME: Among women aged 20—44, 125,190 were below 100% of the federal poverty level.
    • RACE/ETHNICITY: 572,140 were non-Hispanic white; 205,730 were non-Hispanic black; and 94,440 were Hispanic.
  • In 2012, there were 443,960 women in Virginia in need of publicly supported contraceptive services and supplies. Of these, 117,240 were in need of publicly supported services because they were sexually active teenagers, and 326,730 because they had incomes below 250% of the federal poverty level.
  • In 2012—2013, 17% of women aged 15—44 in Virginia were uninsured, while 8% were enrolled in Medicaid.

For more information, see Contraceptive Needs and Services

PREGNANCIES, BIRTHS AND ABORTIONS

  • In 2011, there were 153,000 pregnancies to the 1,661,833 women of reproductive age (15—44) in Virginia; that did not result in miscarriages or stillbirths, 67% resulted in live births and 18% in induced abortions.
  • In 2008, 53% of pregnancies in Virginia were unintended. There were 87,000 unintended pregnancies to women in Virginia, producing an unintended pregnancy rate of 53 per 1,000 women of reproductive age.
  • Of all unintended pregnancies in Virginia in 2008, 52% resulted in live births and 34% resulted in induced abortions.
  • In 2008, 45% of births in Virginia resulting from unintended pregnancies were publicly funded, compared with 30% of all births and 19% of births resulting from intended pregnancies.
  • Of the 31,500 publicly funded births in Virginia in 2008, 20,100 resulted from unintended pregnancies.
  • Births resulting from unintended pregnancies in Virginia accounted for $319 million in public costs in 2008, including $160 million in federal costs and $160 million in state costs.
  • In 2011, 27,110 women obtained abortions in Virginia, producing a rate of 16.3 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Some of these women were from other states, and some Virginia residents had abortions in other states, so this rate may not reflect the abortion rate of state residents. The rate declined 6% since 2008, when it was 17.3 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15—44. Virginia represents 2.6% of all abortions in the United States.
  • In 2010, 31,360 Virginia residents obtained abortions, producing a rate of 19.1 per 1,000 women of reproductive age.
  • In 2010, there were 12,890 pregnancies to Virginia teens aged 15—19; pregnancies that did not result in miscarriages or stillbirths, 67% resulted in live births and 33% in induced abortions.
  • In 2008, 3,680 teens obtained abortions in Virginia, producing a rate of 14 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15—19.
  • In 2011, there were 35 abortion providers in Virginia; 21 of those were clinics. This represents a 13% decrease in overall providers and a 0% increase in clinics from 2008, when there were 40 abortion providers overall, of which 21 were abortion clinics.
  • In 2011, 92% of Virginia counties had no abortion clinic; 78% of Virginia women lived in these counties.

For more information, see State Facts About Abortion

PUBLICLY FUNDED CONTRACEPTIVE SERVICES

  • In 2012 in Virginia, safety net health centers provided contraceptive care to 90,120 women.
  • In 2010 200 safety net health centers served 21,320 teenagers in need of contraceptive care.
  • Safety net health centers in Virginia served 20% of all women in need of publicly supported contraceptive services and supplies in 2012.
  • In Virginia, $77 in public funds was spent on contraceptive services and supplies per woman in need in 2010.
  • In Virginia safety net health centers that received some support through the federal Title X family planning program provided contraceptive care to 72,010 women in 2012.
  • In 2010, 135 safety net health centers that received some support through the federal Title X family planning program served 18,110 teenagers in Virginia in need of contraceptive care.
  • Title X-supported centers in Virginia served 16% of all women in need of publicly supported contraceptive services and supplies in 2012.

For more information, see Contraceptive Needs and Services

IMPACT OF PUBLICLY FUNDED CONTRACEPTIVE SERVICES

  • Publicly funded family planning services help women to avoid pregnancies they do not want and to plan pregnancies they do. In 2012, these services helped women in Virginia avoid 22,100 unintended pregnancies, which would likely have resulted in about 11,000 unintended births and 7,500 abortions.
  • Contraceptive services provided at Title X-supported centers in Virginia helped prevent 17,600 unintended pregnancies, which would likely have resulted in about 8,700 unintended births and 6,000 abortions.
  • The services provided at publicly funded family planning centers in Virginia saved the federal and state governments $175,800,000 in 2010.

For more information, see Contraceptive Needs and Services

STATE POLICIES

Policy Summary Table, as of July 1st, 2014

ABORTION
Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe v. Wade
No policy in effect 
Abortion Counseling and Waiting Periods
Mandated counseling includes information designed to discourage abortion
State imposes waiting period between counseling and abortion 24 hours
Woman must make two trips: one for abortion counseling and another for the procedure
Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions
Parent must consent and be notified before an abortion
Restrictions on Private Insurance Coverage of Abortion
Insurance for state employees restricted Coverage in limited circumstances
Public Funding of Abortion for Poor Women
Public funding is available in cases of life endangerment, rape or incest Also fetal impairment.
Refusal Clauses for Abortion Services
Medical professionals may refuse
Medical institutions may refuse All institutions
ADOLESCENTS
Minors' Consent to Contraceptive Services
All minors explicitly permitted to consent
Minors' Consent to STI Services
All or some minors explicitly permitted to consent All minors
Parental Involvement in Minors' Abortions
Parent must consent and be notified before an abortion
Sex Education
Sex education must either stress or cover abstinence Cover
Sex education must cover contraception
STI/HIV education must either stress or cover abstinence Cover
STI/HIV education must cover contraception
CONTRACEPTION SERVICES AND FINANCING
Emergency Contraception in Emergency Rooms
No policy in effect 
Private Insurance Coverage of Contraceptive Services
No policy in effect 
Medicaid Family Planning Expansions
Eligibility for Medicaid family planning based on income 200% Federal Poverty Level
Contraceptive Access in Pharmacies
No policy in effect 
Refusal Clauses for Contraceptive Services
No policy in effect 
Minors' Consent to Contraceptive Services
All minors explicitly permitted to consent

For more information, see State Policies in Brief