Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Volume 34, Number 2, March/April 2002


The Checkered History and Bright Future of Intrauterine
Contraception in the United States

FIGURE 1. The main messages of key articles that dispel common myths about IUDs, 1987-2001
Citation Main message
World Health Organization, 1987 The IUD is an important method of fertility regulation with high continuation rates and important advantages in convenience of use.
Wilcox et al., 1987 The IUD effectively interrupts the reproductive process before implantation.
Alvarez et al.,1988 The IUD prevents most fertilizations from occurring, but if it fails to do so, the IUD prevents fertilized ova from entering the uterus.
Wilson, 1989 Fertility is not impaired among women who have IUDs removed because of complications.
Sivin et al., 1991 Copper IUDs are as safe as levonorgestrel IUDs.
Farley, 1992 PID is an infrequent event after the first 20 days following IUD insertion.
Andersson, Odlind A five-year study showed that the LNG-IUS is a and Rybo, 1994 safe and effective contraceptive.
UNDP et al., 1997 A 12-year follow-up study confirmed the safety and efficacy of copper IUDs.
Sinei et al., 1998 IUDs are a safe form of contraception for HIV-positive women.
Walsh et al., 1998 Careful screening practices can eliminate insertion-related PID.
Hubacher et al., 2001 Copper IUDs do not increase the risk of tubal infertility, whereas exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis does.
Kadanali et al., 2001 The IUD interferes with sperm transport in the female reproductive tract.
Meirik, Farley and Sivin, 2001 Copper IUDs are safe and effective in relation Sivin, 2001 to other methods.
Shelton, 2001 Even in settings with a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, the theoretical risk of PID attributable to an IUD insertion is very low.
Source: reference 18.

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© copyright 2001, the Alan Guttmacher Institute.