State Responses to Substance Abuse Among Pregnant Women

Laws Pertaining to Pregnant Women Who Use Drugs
State Civil Child Welfare* Reporting Requirements Testing Requirements Civil Commitment Drug Treatment
Arizona   X     X
Arkansas      X
California      X
Colorado      X
Connecticut      X
Florida X     X
Georgia      X
Illinois X X     X
Indiana X        
Iowa   X X    
Kansas         X
Kentucky         X
Louisiana         X
Maryland X       X
Massachusetts   X      
Michigan   X      
Minnesota X X X X X
Missouri         X
Nebraska         X
Nevada X        
New Hampshire          
New Jersey          
New Mexico          
New York         X
North Carolina         X
North Dakota          
Ohio         X
Oklahoma         X
Oregon         X
Pennsylvania         X
Rhode Island X        
South Carolina X        
South Dakota X     X  
Texas X       X
Utah   X      
Virginia X   X   X
Washington         X
West Virginia          
Wisconsin X     X X
*In addition, an Oklahoma statute deems an infant as "deprived" if it tests positive for a controlled substance and "is determined to be at risk of future exposure to such substances" (emphasis added). In Iowa, grounds for terminating parental rights include the fact that an "illegal drug is present in a child's body as a direct and foreseeable consequence of the acts or omissions of the person responsible for the care of the child"; this statute, however, does not appear to be directed at pregnant women. A Tennessee state law stipulates that the state may provide treatment services to pregnant women. In South Carolina, women who participate in the state-funded Family Independence Program and give birth to an infant who tests positive for drugs must participate in a drug rehabilitation program approved by the state.

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