Longitudinal Evaluation of the Tupange Urban Family Planning Program in Kenya

Aimee Benson, University of North Carolina Lisa M. Calhoun, University of North Carolina Meghan Corroon, University of North Carolina Peter Lance, University of North Carolina Rick O'Hara, University of North Carolina John Otsola, University of North Carolina Ilene S. Speizer, University of North Carolina Jennifer Winston, University of North Carolina other members of the Kenya Measurement, Learning & Evaluation Project team

First published online:

| DOI: https://doi.org/10.1363/43e4117
Abstract / Summary

Levels of fertility and contraceptive use have long fluctuated in Kenya. The multicomponent Tupange program, part of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, was initiated in 2011 to increase use of modern family planning methods.


Women aged 15–49 in the five Kenyan cities where Tupange was implemented were interviewed in 2010 and reinterviewed in 2014 to obtain information on their contraceptive use and exposure to components of the Tupange program. Fixed-effects models were estimated to identify associations between program exposure and use of modern family planning methods. Analyses were performed to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of program components.


During the four-year follow-up period, the proportion of women using modern contraceptives increased from 45% to 52%, and the proportion of users who were using long-acting or permanent methods rose from 6% to 19%. The fixed-effects model indicated that modern method use was associated with having heard Tupange-related local radio programming and marginally associated with having discussed family planning with a community health worker (CHW); among women who were unmarried or did not give birth during the study period, modern method use was associated with living near program facilities. Local radio programming was the most cost-effective program component, followed by proximity to Tupange facilities and discussions with CHWs.


Urban reproductive health programs seeking to increase use of modern family planning methods in Kenya and other Sub-Saharan African settings should consider multicomponent approaches that include CHW activities, local radio programming and improvements to the supply environment.

Author's Affiliations

At the time of project implementation, Aimee Benson was survey and data management officer, Lisa M. Calhoun and Meghan Corroon were technical officers, Peter Lance was impact evaluation analyst, Rick O'Hara was program analyst, John Otsola was country manager and Jennifer Winston was geographic information systems specialist, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Ilene S. Speizer is a fellow, Carolina Population Center, and research professor, Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Author contact: [email protected]


The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the Guttmacher Institute.