State Bans on Abortion Throughout Pregnancy

The landscape of abortion access in the United States continues to shift rapidly in the wake of the Supreme Court’s June 2022 ruling in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, which overturned Roe v. Wade and eliminated the federal constitutional right to abortion. Since then, many state legislatures have created new abortion restrictions and bans, and many have begun enforcing existing ones. Research has long indicated that abortion bans of all types have the greatest impact on people in marginalized groups. Individuals who face systemic racism and other forms of oppression may encounter compounding barriers to obtaining an abortion.

Many state laws provide some limited exceptions to total bans and bans based on gestational duration. These exceptions are often described as compromises, but they obscure the harm of abortion bans. Most exceptions are designed to be unworkable, containing vague and contradictory language and imposing cumbersome requirements.

The abortion restrictions detailed below represent some of the ways state laws and policies may prohibit or restrict a person’s access to abortion care. Guttmacher’s interactive map on state abortion policies and state legislation tracker contain additional information about current state abortion laws and restrictions on access.

Definitions

Gestational duration: An estimate of the length of time a person has been pregnant. This is typically defined as the number of weeks since the person’s last menstrual period (LMP), though some states define it as the number of weeks since conception. State legislation often uses gestational duration to define the arbitrary timelines of abortion bans and restrictions. Most state abortion statutes reference “probable gestational age,” which is typically determined by LMP; the weeks listed in the table below refer to LMP unless marked otherwise.

Viability: A nonmedical term used to describe the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus, which is generally determined to be between 24 and 26 weeks LMP. Many statutory bans define limits on abortion based on the concept of viability.

General health: Determined by a health care provider licensed to provide abortions and may include a pregnant person’s mental and emotional health.

Physical health: Applies only to the physical function of the patient’s body and may even be restricted to major bodily functions.

Lethal fetal anomaly: Fetal condition likely to be fatal before or shortly after birth.


Highlights

41 STATES HAVE ABORTION BANS IN EFFECT WITH ONLY LIMITED EXCEPTIONS.

  • 14 states have a total abortion ban.
  • 27 states have abortion bans based on gestational duration.
    • 7 states ban abortion at or before 18 weeks’ gestation.
    • 20 states ban abortion at some point after 18 weeks.

9 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DO NOT RESTRICT ABORTION BASED ON GESTATIONAL DURATION.

Current Policy Status Table

Total Abortion Bans and Bans Based on Gestational Duration Currently in Effect

State 

Total ban

Bans in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy

Bans after 18 weeks of pregnancy

No ban or gestational limit 

Alabama

 

 

 

Alaska 

 

 

 

Arizona

 

15 weeks 

 

 

Arkansas

 

 

 

California

 

 

Viability 

 

Colorado

 

 

 

Connecticut

 

 

Viability 

 

Delaware

 

 

Viability 

 

District of Columbia 

 

 

 

Florida

 

6 weeks 

 

 

Georgia

 

6 weeks 

 

 

Hawaii

 

 

Viability 

 

Idaho

 

 

 

Illinois

 

 

Viability 

 

Indiana

 

 

 

Iowa

 

 

22 weeks 

 

Kansas

 

 

22 weeks 

 

Kentucky

 

 

 

Louisiana

 

 

 

Maine

 

 

 Viability

 

Maryland

 

 

 

 X

Massachusetts

 

 

24 weeks 

 

Michigan 

 

 

 

Minnesota

 

 

 

Mississippi

 

 

 

Missouri

 

 

 

Montana

 

 

Viability 

 

Nebraska

 

12 weeks 

 

 

Nevada

 

 

24 weeks 

 

New Hampshire

 

 

22 weeks 

 

New Jersey

 

 

 

New Mexico

 

 

 

New York

 

 

24 weeks 

 

North Carolina

 

12 weeks 

 

 

North Dakota

 

 

 

Ohio

 

 

22 weeks 

 

Oklahoma

 

 

 

Oregon

 

 

 

Pennsylvania

 

 

24 weeks 

 

Rhode Island

 

 

Viability 

 

South Carolina

 

6 weeks 

 

 

South Dakota

 

 

 

Tennessee

 

 

 

Texas

 

 

 

Utah

 

18 weeks 

 

 

Vermont

 

 

 

Virginia

 

 

3rd trimester 

 

Washington

 

 

Viability 

 

West Virginia

 

 

 

Wisconsin

 

 

22 weeks 

 

Wyoming

 

 

Viability 

 

TOTAL

14

7

20

9 + DC



Exceptions to Bans Based on Gestational Duration

State 

Threat to the life of the pregnant person

Threat to the general health of the pregnant person

Threat to the physical health of the pregnant person

Pregnancy resulting from rape

Pregnancy resulting from incest

Diagnosis of lethal fetal anomaly

Alabama

 

 

 

 

Arizona

 

 

 

 

Arkansas 

 

 

 

 

 

California

 

 

 

 

Connecticut

 

 

 

 

Delaware

 

 

 

Florida

 

X (through 15 weeks)

X (through 15 weeks)

X (until 3rd trimester)

Georgia

 

X (through 20 weeks) 

X (through 20 weeks) 

Hawaii

 

 

 

 

Idaho

 

 

 

Illinois

 

 

 

 

Indiana

 

X (through 10 weeks since conception)

X (through 10 weeks since conception) 

X (through 10 weeks since conception) 

Iowa 

 

 

 

 

Kansas

 

 

 

 

Kentucky

 

 

 

 

Louisiana

 

 

 

Maine*

 

 

 

 

 

Massachusetts

 

 

 

Mississippi

 

 

 

 

Missouri

 

 

 

 

Montana

 

 

 

 

Nebraska

 

 

Nevada

 

 

 

 

New Hampshire

 

 

 

New York

 

 

 

 

North Carolina

 

X (through 20 weeks) 

X (through 20 weeks) 

X (through 24 weeks) 

North Dakota

 

X (through 6 weeks) 

X (through 6 weeks) 

 

Ohio

 

 

 

 

Oklahoma

 

 

 

 

 

Pennsylvania

 

 

 

 

Rhode Island

 

 

 

 

South Carolina

 

X (through 12 weeks) 

X (through 12 weeks) 

South Dakota

 

 

 

 

 

Tennessee

 

 

 

 

Texas

 

 

 

 

Utah

 

Virginia

 

 

 

 

Washington

 

 

 

 

West Virginia

 

X (through 8 weeks for adults, 14 weeks for minors) 

X (through 8 weeks for adults, 14 weeks for minors) 

Wisconsin

 

 

 

 

Wyoming

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

41

11

24

10

9

11

Notes: The inclusion of an exception in a policy banning abortion does not ensure there will be a provider available or willing to perform the procedure. The exceptions listed are for abortion bans that are in effect. Gestational duration limits that differ from the overall limit are noted and are in LMP unless otherwise stated.

*Maine allows for abortion after viability when a physician deems it necessary.


Source URL: https://www.guttmacher.org/state-policy/explore/state-policies-abortion-bans