Sex and HIV Education

Background

Background

Beginning in the 1970s, concerns over adolescent pregnancy—and later, HIV/AIDS—galvanized widespread public support for sex education in schools. Most states currently have a policy requiring HIV education, usually in conjunction with broader sex education. Meanwhile, as debate over the relative merits of abstinence-only-until-marriage messages versus more comprehensive approaches has intensified, states have enacted a number of specific content requirements. Growing acknowledgment of young people’s sexuality has popularized instruction on life skills, with most states now requiring instruction on healthy relationships and the prevention of sexual violence.

Visit our state legislation tracker for policy activity on all sexual and reproductive health topics.

Highlights

General Requirements for Sex Education and HIV Education

  • 38 states and the District of Columbia mandate sex education and/or HIV education.
    • 25 states and DC mandate both sex education and HIV education.
    • 2 states only mandate sex education.
    • 11 states only mandate HIV education.
  • 30 states and DC mandate that, when provided, sex and HIV education programs meet certain general requirements.
    • 17 states require program content to be medically accurate.
    • 26 states and DC require instruction to be appropriate for the students’ age.
    • 10 states require the program to provide instruction that is appropriate for a student’s cultural background and that is not biased against any race, sex or ethnicity.
    • 4 states prohibit the program from promoting religion.
  • 40 states and DC require school districts to involve parents in sex education, HIV education or both.
    • 25 states and DC require parental notification that sex education or HIV education will be provided.
    • 6 states require parental consent for students to participate in sex education or HIV education.
    • 35 states and DC allow parents the option to remove their child from instruction.

Content Requirements When Sex Education is Taught

  • 20 states and DC require provision of information on contraception.
  • 39 states and DC require provision of information on abstinence.
    • 29 states require that abstinence be stressed.
    • 10 states and DC require that abstinence be covered.
  • 19 states require instruction on the importance of engaging in sexual activity only within marriage to be provided.
  • 13 states and DC require either an inclusive or discriminatory view of sexual orientation.
    • 10 states and DC require inclusive content with regard to sexual orientation.
    • 3 states require only negative information to be provided on homosexuality and/or positive emphasis on heterosexuality.
  • 17 states and DC require the inclusion of information on the negative outcomes of teen sex and pregnancy.

Content Requirements When HIV Education is Taught

  • 19 states require inclusion of information on condoms or contraception.
  • 37 states and DC require provision of information on abstinence.
    • 28 states require that abstinence be stressed.
    • 9 states and DC require that abstinence be covered.

Life Skills Requirements for Sexual Consent, Relationships and Prevention of Dating and Sexual Violence

  • 35 states and DC require provision of information about skills for healthy romantic and sexual relationships. 
    • 31 states and DC require information on healthy relationships to be provided.
    • 27 states and DC require instruction on self-control and decision making about sexuality.
  • 40 states and DC require prevention of teen dating violence and sexual violence to be covered.
    • 24 states and DC require provision of information on asserting personal boundaries and refusing unwanted sexual advances.
    • 11 states require the importance of consent to sexual activity to be covered.
    • 38 states and DC require provision of information on preventing, recognizing and responding to teen dating violence and sexual violence.

 

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General Requirements for Sex* and HIV Education

STATE

SEX EDUCATION* MANDATED

HIV EDUCATION MANDATED

WHEN PROVIDED, SEX OR HIV EDUCATION MUST

PARENTAL ROLE

 

Be Medically Accurate

Be Age Appropriate

Be Culturally Appropriate and Unbiased

Cannot Promote Religion

Notice

Consent

Opt-out allowed

Alabama

 

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

   X  

Alaska

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

Arizona

 

 

HIV

X

 

 

X

Sex

   HIV

Arkansas

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

Colorado

 

 

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

Connecticut

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Delaware

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dist. of Columbia

X

X

 

X

 

 

X

 

X

Florida

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

Georgia

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

Hawaii

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

Idaho

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Illinois†​

 

X

X

X

 X

 X

 

 

X

Indiana†​

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

Iowa

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

Kansas

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kentucky

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louisiana

 

 

X

 

 

X

 

 

X

Maine

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

Maryland

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

Massachusetts

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

 

X

Michigan

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

Minnesota

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MississippiΩ​

X

 

 

X

 

 

X

X

 

Missouri

 

X

X

X

 

 

X

 

X

Montana

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 X

Nevada

X

X

 

X

 

 

X

X

 

New Hampshire

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

New Jersey

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

New Mexico

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

New York

 

X

 

HIV

 

 

 

 

HIV

North Carolina

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

North Dakota

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ohio

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Oklahoma

 

X

HIV

 

 

 

X

 

X

Oregon

X

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

Pennsylvania

 

X

 

HIV

 

 

HIV

 

HIV

Rhode Island

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

HIV

South Carolina

X

X

 

X

 

 

X

 

X

Tennessee

XΨ​

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

 

Texas

 

 

 

X

 

 

X

X

 

Utahξ​

X

X

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

Vermont

X

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

HIV

Virginia

 

 

X

X

 

 

X

 

X

Washington

X

X

X

X

 

X

 

X

West Virginia

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

Wisconsin

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

X

TOTAL

28+DC

37+DC

17

26+DC

10

4

25+DC

6

35+DC

 

*    Sex education typically includes discussion of STIs.†    Sex education is not mandatory, but health education is required and it includes medically accurate information on abstinence.Ω   Localities may include topics such as contraception or STIs only with permission from the State Department of Education. Ψ   Sex education is required in a county if the pregnancy rate is at least 19.5 or higher per 1,000 young women aged 15—17.ξ    State also prohibits teachers from responding to students' spontaneous questions in ways that conflict with the law's requirements.

 

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Content Requirements for Sex* and HIV Education

State

When provided, sex education must include:

When provided, HIV education must include:

 

Contraception

Abstinence

Importance of sex Only within marriage

Sexual orientation

Negative outcomes of teen sex

Condoms

Abstinence

Alabama

X

Stress

X

 

 

X

Stress

Arizona

 

Stress 

 

 

X

 

Stress

Arkansas

 

Stress 

X

 

 

 

Stress

California

X

Cover 

 

Inclusive

 

X

Cover

Colorado

X

Stress

 

Inclusive

X

X

Cover

Connecticut

X

Cover

 

Inclusive

X

 

 

Delaware

X

Stress

 

Inclusive

 

X

Stress

Dist. of Columbia

X

Cover

 

Inclusive

X

 

Cover

Florida

 

Stress

X

Negative

X

 

Stress

Georgia

 

Stress

X

 

 

 

Cover

Hawaii

X

Stress

 

 

 

X

Stress

Idaho

 

Stress

 

 

 

 

 

Illinois

X

Stress

X

Inclusive

 

X

Stress

Indiana

 

Stress

X

 

X

 

Stress

Iowa

 

 

 

Inclusive

 

 

 

Kentucky

 

Stress

 

 

 

 

 

Louisiana

 

Stress 

X

 Negative

 

 

Stress

Maine

X

Stress 

 

 

 

X

Stress

Maryland

X

Cover 

 

Inclusive 

 

X

Cover

Michigan

 

Stress 

X

 

 

 

Stress

Minnesota

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cover

MississippiΩ​

 

Stress 

X

 Negative

X

 

Stress

Missouri

 

Stress

X

 

X

 

Stress

Montana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Hampshire

 

Cover

 

 

 

 

Cover

New Jersey

X

Stress 

 

Inclusive

 

X

Stress

New Mexico

X

Cover

 

 

X

X

Stress

New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stress

North Carolina

X

Stress

X

 

X

X

Stress

North Dakota

 

Cover

X

 

X

 

 

Ohio

 

Stress

X

 

X

 

Stress

Oklahoma

 

Stress

 

 

X

Stress

Oregon

X

Stress

 

Inclusive

 

X

Stress

Pennsylvania

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stress

Rhode Island

X

Stress 

 

Inclusive

X

X

Stress

South Carolina

X

Stress 

X

 

 

 

Stress

South Dakota

 

Cover

 

 

 

 

 

Tennessee

 

Stress 

X

 

X

 

Stress

Texas

X

Stress

X

 

X

X

Stress

Utahξ

 

Stress 

X

 

 

 

Stress

Vermont

X

Cover

 

 

X

X

Cover

Virginia

X

Cover

X

 

X

X

Cover

Washington

X

Stress

 

Inclusive

 

X

Stress

West Virginia

X

Cover

 

 

X

X

Cover

Wisconsin

 

Stress

X

 

 

 

Stress

TOTAL

21+DC

39+DC

19

13+DC

17+DC

19

37+DC

*    Sex education typically includes discussion of STIs.Ω   Localities may include topics such as contraception  or STIs only with permission from the state Department of Education. ᶲ    Mandated HIV education teaches that, among other behaviors, “homosexual activity” is considered to be “responsible for contact with the AIDS virus.”ξ    State also prohibits teachers from responding to students' spontaneous questions in ways that conflict with the law's requirements.

 

--> --> --> --> --> -->

Sex Education* to Include Life Skills on Sexual Consent, Relationships and Prevention of Violence

State

Healthy relationships

Sexual decision-making and self-discipline

Refusal skills and personal boundaries

Consent

Dating and sexual violence prevention

Alabama

 

X

X

 

X

Alaska

 

 

 

 

X

Arizona

X

X

X

 

X

Arkansas

X

X

X

 

X

California

X

X

X

X

X

Colorado

X

X

X

X

X

Connecticut

X

X

 

 

X

Delaware

X

X

X

X

X

Dist. of Columbia

X

X

X

X

X

Florida

X

X

 

 

X

Georgia

 

 

X

 

X

Hawaii

X

X

 

 

 X

Idaho

X

X

 

 

 

Illinois

X

 

X

X

X

Indiana

 

 

 

 

X

Iowa

X

 

 

 

X

Kansas

 

 

 

 

 

Kentucky

X

X

 

 

 

Louisiana

X

X

 

 

X

Maine

X

X

 

 

X

Maryland

X

X

X

X

X

Massachusetts

X

 

 

 

X

Michigan

 

X

X

 

X

Minnesota

 

 

 

 

 

Mississippi

 

 

 

 

X

Missouri

 

X

X

X

X

Montana

 

 

 

 

 

Nebraska

X

 

 

 

X

Nevada

 

X

 

 

 

New Hampshire

 

 

 

 

X

New Jersey

X

X

X

X

X

New Mexico

X

X

X

 

X

New York

 

 

 

 

 

North Carolina

X

X

X

 

X

North Dakota

 

 

 

 

 

Ohio

X

 

 

 

X

Oklahoma

 

 

X

 X

 

Oregon

X

X

X

X

X

Pennsylvania

X

 

 

 

 

Rhode Island

X

X

X

 

X

South Carolina

X

 

X

X

X

Tennessee

X

X

X

 

X

Texas

X

X

X

 

X

Utah

 

 

X

 

X

Vermont

X

X

 

 

X

Virginia

X

X

X

 

X

Washington

X

X

X

X

West Virginia

X

 

X

 

X

Wisconsin

 

 

 

 

X

Wyoming

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

31+DC

27+DC

24+DC

11+DC

38+DC

*    Sex education typically includes discussion of STIs.