State Bans on Abortion Throughout Pregnancy

Background

Background

Background

On June 24, 2022, the US Supreme Court overturned abortion rights. We are updating this fact sheet as states implement and enforce abortion bans.

Definitions

Last menstrual period (LMP): The beginning of pregnancy calculated from the start of the most recent menstrual period. An average pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks from this point.

Postfertilization: The beginning of pregnancy calculated from the date of conception; 20 weeks postfertilization is equivalent to 22 weeks LMP.

Postimplantation: The beginning of pregnancy calculated from the date of embryo implantation; 24 weeks postimplantation is equivalent to 27 weeks LMP.

General health: Defined by an individual doctor and includes the patient’s mental and emotional health.

Physical health: Applies only to the physical function of the patient’s body and may even be restricted to major bodily functions.

Viability: The point at which a fetus can sustain survival outside the uterus. Determined based on the fetus’s developmental progress and may vary by pregnancy. A fetus generally reaches viability between 24 and 28 weeks LMP.

Visit our state legislation tracker for policy activity on all sexual and reproductive health topics.

Highlights

  • 44 states prohibit some abortions after a certain point in pregnancy.
    • 12 states ban abortion.
    • 1 state bans abortion at six weeks LMP.
    • 2 states ban abortion at 15 weeks LMP.
    • 1 state bans abortion at 20 weeks LMP.
    • 9 states ban abortion at 22 weeks LMP (20 weeks postfertilization in state law) on the unscientific grounds that a fetus can feel pain at that point. (Note that abortion in unavailable in two of these states because there are no abortion providers.)
    • 4 states ban abortion at 24 weeks LMP.
    • 14 states impose a ban at viability.
    • 1 state imposes a ban in the third trimester (beginning at 25 weeks LMP)

State Bans on Abortion Throughout Pregnancy

Statutory limit

State

Exceptions

Life

General
health

Physical
health
§

Other

Conception

Alabama

X

 

X

 

 

Arkansas

X

 

 

 

  Idaho X   X Rape, incest

 

Kentucky

X

 

X

 

  Louisiana X   X Lethal fetal anomaly

 

Mississippi

X

 

 

rape 

 

Missouri

X

 

X

 

 

Oklahoma

X

 

 

 

 

South Dakota

X

 

 

 

  Tennessee X   X  

 

Texas

X

 

 

 

  West Virginia X   X Rapez, incestz, lethal fetal anomaly

TOTAL IN EFFECT

12

12

 

7

4

6 weeks LMP

Georgia X   X

 

 

Iowa

 

 

 

Kentucky

 

 

  Louisiana    

 

North Dakota

 

 

 

Oklahoma

 

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

1 1   1

0

8 weeks LMP

Missouri

 

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

0

0

 

0

0 

12 weeks LMP

Arkansas

 

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

0

0

 

0

0

15 weeks LMP Arizona X   X  
  Florida X   X Lethal fetal anomaly

 

Louisiana

 

 

 

Mississippi

 

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

2

2

 

2

 1

18 weeks LMP

Arkansas

 

 

 

Utah

1

 

1

Rape, incest, lethal fetal anomaly

TOTAL IN EFFECT

1

1

 

1

1

20 weeks LMP

Arizona

 

 

 

Montana

 

 

 

North Carolina

X

 

X

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

1

1

 

1

0

 22 weeks LMP

 

 

 

 

 

  Idaho    

 

Indiana†,*

X

 

X

 

 

Iowa*

X

 

X

 

 

Kansas*,‡

X

 

X

 

 

Nebraska*

X

 

X

 

 

North Dakota*,†,Ɵ

X

 

X

 

  Ohio*,†,‡ X   X  
  South Carolina X   X Lethal fetal anomaly

 

Wisconsin*,Ɵ

X

 

X

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

9

9

 

9

1

 24 weeks LMP

Nevada

X

X

 

 

 

Massachusettsβ

X

X

 

Lethal fetal anomaly 

 

New Hampshire

X

 

X

 

 

Pennsylvania†,‡

X

 

X

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

4

4

2

2

1

 Viability

California

X

X

 

 

 

Connecticut

X

X

 

 

 

Delaware

X

X

 

Lethal fetal anomaly

 

Hawaii

X

X

 

 

 

Illinois

X

X

 

 

 

Maine

X

X

 

 

 

Maryland

X

X

 

Fetal anomaly

 

Michigan

X

 

 

 

 

Minnesota

X

X

 

 

 

Montana

X

 

X

 

 

New York

X

X

 

 

 

Rhode Island

X

X

 

 

 

Washington

X

X

 

 

 

Wyoming

X

 

X

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

14

14

11

2

2

Third trimester

Virginia

X

X

 

 

TOTAL IN EFFECT

1

1

1

0

0

▼ Permanently enjoined by court order; law not in effect. Oklahoma's six-week ban was superseded by a total ban.

Temporarily enjoined by court order; law not in effect. Louisiana’s six-week ban only goes into effect if Mississippi’s ban is allowed to take effect.

§ This exception typically permits an abortion when the individual suffers from a condition that risks “substantial and irreversible impairment” or “imminent peril” of a “major bodily function.”

z The rape and incest exceptions apply up to eight weeks of pregnancy for adults and up to 14 weeks for minors.

* Based on the assertion that a fetus can feel pain at 18 or 20 weeks postfertilization.

† State requires a second physician to attend an abortion that takes place after the state’s gestational age limit.
‡ State requires a second physician to approve an abortion if it will take place after the state’s gestational age limit. Kansas requires approval only for an abortion after viability.

Ɵ The one clinic in North Dakota has moved to another state. In Wisconsin, due to legal uncertainty around the status of the state's pre-Roe ban, providers have been forced to stop offering abortion care.

β State law defines pregnancy from the date of embryo implantation.